How to Play Texas Hold'em | Texas Holdem Rules

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Learning how to play Texas Hold'em can seem much more difficult than it really is.

The rules of Texas Holdem are actually very logical and simple and require just a few minutes to learn.

Mastering Texas Holdem, however, will take you a bit longer.

Texas Holdem Rules

If you're just getting started learning the rules of Texas Holdem, Keep this guide handy for quick reference. Anytime you get confused by the action, read below for some guidance. Each topic contains links to more in-depth articles on that specific aspect of the Texas Holdem rules.

When you feel you've got the hang of it and are ready to play for real be it in online poker or live, check out our Texas Hold'em toplist for the best places to get right into a Texas Holdem game online..

Before we get into describing the rules and game play, here's a quick glossary of Texas Holdem terms you'll encounter.

  • Blinds: Short for "blind bets," these are the forced bets made before the cards are dealt. In Hold'em, blinds take the place of the classic "ante."
  • Button: Nickname for the player acting as the dealer in current hand.
  • Check: Similar to a call but no money is bet. If there is no raise preflop, the big blind may check.
  • Flop: The first three community cards dealt.
  • Fourth Street: See Turn.
  • Fifth Street: See River.
  • All-In: A player puts all of his or her remaining chips into the pot 
  • Preflop: Anything that occurs before the flop is dealt is preflop.
  • River: The final (5th) community card dealt; also known as fifth street.
  • Showdown: When players reveal their hands to discover the pot's winner.
  • Turn: The fourth community card dealt; also known as fourth street.

How to Play Texas Hold'em

Texas Hold'em is a community card poker game with game play focused as much on the betting as on the cards being played.


Although the rules and game play are the same the end goal is slightly different depending on if you're playing a Texas Holdem cash game or a Texas Holdem tournament.

A Texas Hold'em tournament is the same as any other game of Hold'em with a few added rules and twists. Learn more about the rules unique to Texas Holdem poker tournaments here. (There will also be a link at the bottom of the page).

A Texas Holdem cash game is played on a single table with two to 10 players. The goal is simple: win as many chips as you can, one pot at a time. You win a pot by having the best hand or by having all other players fold before the showdown.

A Texas Hold'em game can be broken up into three main parts:

  • Setup
  • Betting Rounds
  • Showdown

Texas Holdem - Picking a Dealer

Once you have your players sitting around the table, the first thing you need to have is chips. Before you can figure out what kind of chips to give each player, you need to understand how the game works a little better, so we'll get back to this.


For now, assume all players have chips in front of them.

The next step is picking the player who will start with the dealer button. Hold'em is played with what's known as a rotating dealer, meaning a player will act as the dealer for one hand, handing the role of dealer to the player on their left when the hand is completed.

To choose the dealer, either deal every player one card or spread the cards facedown on the table and have every player choose one. The player with the highest-valued card (aces are high for selecting a dealer) starts as the dealer.

If you're in a place with a professional dealer (or someone volunteers to always physically deal the cards) the dealer button will still rotate around the table. Even though he or she is physically dealing the cards, for all intents and purposes, the person with the button is viewed as being the dealer for the hand. 

Once the hand completes the player with the dealer button will pass it to the player on his or her left.

Putting Out the Blinds

Now that you have a dealer, you need to put out the blinds. There are two blinds in Texas Holdem - a small blind and a big blind. The player directly to the left of the dealer puts out the small blind.

The big blind (usually double that of the small blind) is placed by the player to the left of the small blind. The size of the blinds will dictate the stakes of the game you're about to play.


Typically, you want players to buy in for no less than 100 times the size of the big blind.

If you want to buy in for $20 you should play with blinds of 10¢/20¢. For convenience, most people will play 10¢/25¢.

Back to chips: Once the blinds are set we know what kind of chips we'll need to play. (In the above example, we'd use 10¢ chips, 25¢ chips and maybe a few $1 chips.)

You want to give players enough chips in each denomination to allow the game to run smoothly.

Typically a player will need only 10% of their total chips in the smallest denomination, as they are only ever used to pay the small blind. For the most part, all betting will be done with chips larger than that of the small blind.

Once you have the blinds out, you're now ready to deal the first hand.


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Texas Holdem Betting Rules

The person dealing the cards deals to the left of the player with the dealer button first and rotates clockwise around the table giving each player one card at a time until each player has two cards. These are known as your hole cards.

A round of Texas Hold'em consists of a minimum of one and a maximum of four betting rounds. A hand ends when all players but one have folded or the fourth and final betting round completes with multiple players still in the hand - whichever comes first.

At that point players enter into the showdown (to be explained in the next section) and the player with the highest hand takes the pot. If two players share the highest hand the pot is split equally between them.


Texas Holdem Betting Rules - Pre-Flop

When all players receive their hole cards you're now in the pre-flop betting round. Each player looks at his or her cards and decides what action to take. In Hold'em only one player can act at a time.

The pre-flop betting round starts with the player to the left of the big blind. This player has three options:

  • Fold: Pay nothing to the pot and throw away their hand, waiting for the next deal to play again.
  • Call: Match the amount of the big blind.
  • Raise: Raise the bet by doubling the amount of the big blind. A player may raise more depending on the betting style being played. (More about No-Limit and Pot-Limit betting formats here.)

Once a player has made their action the player to the left of them gets their turn to act. Each player is given the same options: fold, call the bet of the player to their right (if the previous player raised, that is the amount you must call) or raise.

A raise is always the amount of one bet in addition to the amount of the previous bet, for example: if the big blind is 25¢, and the first player to act would like to raise, they put in a total of 50¢ (the big blind + one additional bet).

If the next player would like to re-raise they would put in a total of 75¢ (the previous bet + one additional bet). A Texas Holdem betting round ends when two conditions are met:

  1. All players have had a chance to act.
  2. All players who haven't folded have bet the same amount of money for the round.


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Example Betting Round 1

There are five players at the table:

Player 1 - Button

Player 2 - Small Blind (10¢)

Player 3 - Big Blind (25¢)

Start of betting round

Player 4 - Calls the big blind (25¢)

Player 5 - folds

Player 1 - Calls the big blind (25¢)

Player 2 - Calls the big blind (since they already have 10¢ bet, they only have to add another 15¢, for a total of 25¢)

Player 3 - Checks (since they already have the bet matched, they do not need to add more money to call; this is called checking)

End of betting round

When Player 2 calls the big blind, all players now have the same amount of money in front of them, but Player 3 (the big blind) has not had a chance to act so the betting round is not over.

Once Player 3 checks, both conditions are met and the betting round is over.


Example Betting Round 2

There are five players at the table:

Player 1 - Button

Player 2 - Small blind (10¢)

Player 3 - Big blind (25¢)

Start of betting round

Player 4 - Calls the big blind (25¢)

Player 5 - Raises (50¢)

Player 1 - Folds

Player 2 - Folds

Player 3 - Reraises (they already have 25¢ in as the big blind. They complete the bet of 50¢, and add one additional bet for a total of 75¢)

Player 4 - Folds (their previous call of 25¢ is now in the pot)

Player 5 - Calls (matches the bet of Player 3 for a total of 75¢)

End of betting round

In this scenario all players had had a chance to act when Player 3 made the re-raise. But all players did not have the same amount of money bet.

Once Player 4 folds, only Player 3 and Player 5 are left in the pot. When Player 5 calls, both conditions are met, and the betting round ends.

Texas Holdem Betting Rules - The Flop

Once the preflop betting round ends the flop is dealt. This is done by dealing the top card in the deck facedown on the table (it becomes the burn card), followed by three cards face-up in the middle of the table (see below).

dry Flop2

Once this has been dealt the first post-flop betting round begins. The rules of a post-flop betting round are the same as a preflop with two small exceptions:

  • The first player to act is the next player with a hand to the left of the dealer
  • The first player to act can check or bet; as there has been no bet made, calling is free.

A bet on the flop is the amount of the big blind. In our game as described above, a player must put out 25¢ to make a bet.

Texas Holdem Betting Rules - The Turn

Once the betting round on the flop completes, the dealer deals one card facedown followed by a single card faceup, also known as the "burn and turn." Once the turn has been dealt the third betting round starts.


The third betting round is identical to the flop betting round with one single exception: The size of a bet for this round, and the final betting round, is doubled, meaning that to make a bet in our game will now cost a player 50¢. 

Texas Holdem Betting Rules - The River

Assuming more than one player is left having not folded on one of the previous streets, the river is now dealt. Dealing the river is identical as dealing the turn with one card being dealt facedown followed by a single card face-up.


This is the final street and no more cards will be dealt in this hand. The betting round is identical to the betting round on the turn.


Once the river betting round has been completed the players now enter into the showdown. At this point the best hand wins the pot. Here are the rules you need to know about a Hold'em showdown:

  • The player who bet on the river is the default first player to reveal their hand. If any other players choose to show their hand first, that is OK.
  • If no betting happened on the river (all players checked), the player closest to the left of the dealer must open their hand first, continuing clockwise around the table.
  • If a player is holding a losing hand it is their option to reveal their cards or simply muck their hand and concede the pot.

For more on How to Determine the Winning Texas Holdem Hand and Which Hand Wins, check the links below:

Texas Holdem Rules - Hands

In Hold'em you must make the best hand possible using any combination of your two cards and the five community cards on the table.

You can use both, one or none of your own hole cards in making your best hand. Here are some rules about evaluating a winning poker hand:

  • Here is the official poker hand rankings. There are no exceptions to this ordering: a flush always beats a straight, and three of a kind always beats two pair.
  • There are no hands used in Hold'em other than the hands listed in this chart. For example, having three pairs is actually only "two pair," with the highest-valued two pair making your hand.
  • Poker hands must be exactly five cards and only those five cards are used to evaluate the winning hand. For example:
  • If the board is 2 J Q K A
  • Player 1 holds T 9
  • Player 2 holds T 2

Both players hold the very same hand (a straight from ten to ace).

This means the pot is split between the two players.

The remaining cards and the fact Player 1 also has a pair means nothing - only the best five-card hand factors into deciding the winner.

  • If all remaining players have nothing (no pair or anything stronger), the winning hand is the hand with the highest-valued single card, meaning:
    • A 3 4 6 7 is a better hand than K Q J 9 8
    • A J 9 8 6 is a better hand than A J 9 8 2
  • Suits are never used to evaluate the strength of a hand.

Once you determine the winning hand, that player receives the pot. The dealer passes the dealer button to his or her left and the two players to the left of the new dealer put out their big and small blinds respectively.

Miscellaneous Texas Holdem Rules


  • A player must either declare their intent to raise verbally before making any actions or bring the amount of chips equal to the total amount of their raise into play at the same time. A player is not allowed to place chips, return to their stack and place more chips. This is known as a string bet.
  • Solutions to any other random situation you come across can be found here.

Buying Chips

    • The minimum number of chips a player is allowed to buy before their first hand dealt is determined by the house rules governing the game. Typically a minimum is 50-100 times the big blind.
    • There is no maximum to the number of chips a player may buy at any time.
    • In a cash game a player may reload, or add more chips to their stack, at any time between hands. Once a hand is started, a player may only use the chips they had in play at the beginning of the hand, during that hand. Any additional chips will not be "in play" until the next deal.


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Additional Texas Holdem Rules

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Sammy 2010-04-28 12:01:48

One question:

multiplayer table: Dealing of cards starts from left of the Dealer(Small Blind)

Heads-up table: Dealing of cards does it start from player left of the Dealer (Big Blind) or from the Player who posted the small blind i.e. Dealer itself

Thanks in advance

Sean Lind 2010-04-26 19:44:19


You need to make the best five card hand for each player. Other than player 1 all players are playing the board (the best hand they can make is a full house jacks over queens).

Player 1 though has a better hand, Queens full of Jacks


Johan 2010-04-23 14:47:33

5 Players, 1. 9+Q, 2. K+7, 3. 2+6, 4. A+10, 5.K+5
Dealer. J+Q+J+J+Q

Who win??


Sean Lind 2010-04-21 19:48:13


Two players can agree to split a pot before the river if they choose (only in a cash game)... but why would you? You're there to play poker, you can't do that by giving someone their money back in a hand.

Either way, in a home-came you can do it. The board has to be dealt out regardless, but it's not really against any rules. Although it will look very suspicious, making it seem like you and that player are working together.

Instead of this, the more common thing to do is agree to shoot it, meaning neither player bets, you just check it down, winner takes the pot.

Sean Lind 2010-04-21 19:45:05

Mike S,

I replied to this comment yesterday, but apparently it got lost in the webs.

Anyways the main goal is to not mess up the blinds. If you sit down in a situation which has the first live player on your left in the small blind (you're not in that hand), you can't be the button next hand, since that would force the blinds to remain the same, you have to wait until it passes.

When a player is moved from one table to another, they are supposed to be moved to the same position on the table as they were in on their other table (or as close as the tourney director can get it).

If it's a broken table though it's random, so you could end up anywhere.

Jiten 2010-04-21 17:34:35

Can the last two players agree to split the pot before the river card? or can the rest of the players force a showdown and say that the river card has to be dealt?

Mike S 2010-04-20 21:04:30

If you come in as small blind and have to wait until the button passes you then wouldn't it be the same if you sat down at the table as the button(in tournament play). If you sat as small blind (not allowed to play) the next hand you would be the button, the blinds would be correct,but you still can't come in the hand. then what is the difference if you sit down as the button? The blinds would sill be correct except you would have the best position.

The button is the best position to in and if you are moved to another table I was under the impression that you have to be seated as big blind or up to the button but not as the button so you are in the worst position.

Sean Lind 2010-04-20 20:18:23

Mike S,

In a tournament you can not come in between the blinds and the button. This means the player who sat down in the small blind needs to wait until the button passes him to play (he will not get to play as the button).

If you're seated as the button though, you're allowed to be dealt in that hand. The idea in a tournament is to keep the blinds as normal as possible.

In a cash game you can't come in on the button because the button never sits on an empty seat, it would skip ahead with 3 blinds. In a tournament the button can sit on an empty seat, meaning if you're seated there, you can get cards and play.

Sean Lind 2010-04-20 20:14:47

noe moran,

It's a split pot for all three players. The best five card hand anyone can make there is AAA1010, the only way you could win the pot would be to have the case ace, or to have a pocket pair to give you a better under-pair on the full house, such as AAAJJ

Mike S 2010-04-20 16:01:48

In tournament play, if 2 players are moved to another table and sit down at the dealer button and small blind are they allowed to be dealt in that hand or do they have to wait until the button passes them. Also if you sit at a table as small blind are you allowed to come in as the dealer after that hand is complete.


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